Emulsion and Foam Design
Benjamins has been working for
Unilever Research Laboratory in
He was employed in the Physical Chemistry Group with sections specialised in surface chemistry, rheology and crystallisation. The first projects were related to detergency; oil and particulate soil removal. After 1970 working area shifted to mainly food-related subjects.
The environment was very stimulating and suitable to develop as a specialist in interfacial rheology, ellipsometry, emulsions and foams. The fundamental knowledge obtained in the more background projects was applied later on to various product areas.
His work on protein adsorption and rheology of adsorbed protein layers lead to writing a thesis entitled "Static and Dynamic Properties of Proteins Adsorbed at Liquid Interfaces" (2000 Wageningen University). The thesis includes experimental work that started around 1975 on rheology of adsorbed layers at the air/water surface and the recent development of the so-called Dynamic Drop Tensiometer as a tool to determine the rheological behaviour of adsorbed layers at the oil/water interface.
From 2002 to 2006 he has been employed by WCFS to support research on adsorption of chemically modified proteins at air/water and oil/water interfaces and on developing a toolbox to provide emulsions with properties required in sensory studies.
In 2007 he started a consultancy bureau on the areas of his expertise.
Areas of expertise
Interfacial rheology—compression-expansion and shear
Theoretical background of measuring methods.
Involved in development of several experimental methods:
e.g. Dynamic Drop Tensiometer as a tool to determine the rheological behaviour of adsorbed layers at the oil/water interface.
Adsorption at liquid interfaces.
Ellipsometry: adsorption of proteins at liquid interfaces.
competitive adsorption: proteins- low molecular weight surfactants
Adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces
Application of these, more fundamental, knowledge to products (Emulsions and Foams) and their performance in use (Frying, Whipping of cream).
Emulsions and Foams.
Theoretical background on droplet and bubble break-up
Mechanisms for stabilization.
Structure of adsorbed layer
Mechanisms of destabilization.
Partial coalescence (partially crystallized fat)
High pressure homogenization
Membrane emulsification -- monodisperse emulsions
Ultrasound protein-coated microbubbles
Proteins, monoglycerides, lecithins-phopholipids
Duplex emulsions: oil-in-water and water-in-oil
High Internal Phase Emulsions
Click here for a short review on the relevant scientific backgrounds.
-Advice regarding background and more applied research in the Emulsion and Foam area.
Composition: emulsifier-mix, interactions, oil/fat type, thickeners
Feasibility of research goals
-Hands-on support in short term projects
-Literature search ---- review state of the art
-Provide additional support via a network of specialists.
Read as well: areas of expertise
Benjamins, J., J. Lyklema, and E.H. Lucassen-Reynders, Compression/expansion rheology of oil/water
interfaces with adsorbed proteins. Comparison with the air/water surface.
Langmuir, 2006. 22(14): p.
Mellema, M. and J. Benjamins, Importance of the Marangoni effect in the
foaming of hot oil with phospholipids. Colloids and Surfaces, A:
Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2004. 237(1-3): p. 113-118.
Benjamins, J. and E.H.L. Reynders, Static and dynamic properties of proteins
adsorbed at three different liquid interfaces. Special Publication - Royal
Society of Chemistry, 2003. 284(Food Colloids, Biopolymers and Materials): p.
4. Benjamins, J., A. Sein, and C. Van Vliet, Food product comprising protein-coated gas microbubbles. 2002, (Unilever N.V., Neth.; Unilever PLC; Hindustan Lever Ltd.). Application: WO
WO. p. 46
5. Benjamins, J., et al., Food product comprising gas bubbles. 2000, (Unilever N.V., Neth.; Unilever Plc; Hindustan Lever Ltd.). Application: WO
6. Benjamins, J., et al., Pourable water- and oil-containing emulsions comprising gas bubbles. 2000, (Unilever N.V., Neth.; Unilever Plc; Hindustan Lever Ltd.). Application: WO
WO. p. 31
Lucassen-Reynders, E.H. and J. Benjamins, Dilational rheology of proteins adsorbed at
fluid interfaces. Special Publication - Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999. 227(Food Emulsions and Foams): p.
Benjamins, J. and E.H. Lucassen-Reynders, Surface dilational rheology of proteins
adsorbed at air/water and oil/water interfaces. Studies in Interface
Science, 1998. 7(Proteins at Liquid Interfaces): p. 341-384.
9. Benjamins, J., K.A. Kuypers, and E.H. Lucassen-Reynders, Surface-active composition from cereal extract. 1997, (Unilever N.V., Neth.; Unilever Plc). Application: WO
WO. p. 16
J., A. Cagna, and E.H. Lucassen-Reynders, Viscoelastic properties of
triacylglycerol/water interfaces covered by proteins. Colloids and Surfaces,
A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 1996. 114(Collection of Papers presented at the Workshop
\"Bubble and Drop 95\", 1995): p. 245-254.
11. Vermaas, L.F., J. Benjamins, and P. Sonneveld, Anti-spattering agents using phosphatidyl cholines and oxidized vegetable oils and their use in spreads. 1993, (Unilever N. V., Neth.; Unilever PLC). Application: EP
EP. p. 7
J. and F. Van voorst Vader, The
determination of the surface shear properties of adsorbed protein layers. Colloids and Surfaces, 1992. 65(2-3): p.
13. De Feijter,
J.A. and J. Benjamins, Adsorption
kinetics of proteins at the air-water interface. Special Publication - Royal Society of Chemistry, 1987. 58(Food Emulsions
Foams): p. 72-85.
14. De Feijter,
J.A., J. Benjamins, and M. Tamboer, Adsorption displacement of proteins by
surfactants in oil-in-water emulsions. Colloids and Surfaces, 1987. 27(1-3): p.
15. De Feijter,
J.A. and J. Benjamins, Soft-particle
model of compact macromolecules at interfaces. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1982. 90(1): p.
16. De Feijter,
J.A. and J. Benjamins, Adsorption
behavior of PVA at the air-water interface. I. Applicability of the Gibbs
adsorption equation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1981. 81(1): p. 91-107.
17. De Feijter, J.A.
and J. Benjamins, The propagation of
surface shear waves. II. Experiments. Journal of Colloid and Interface
Science, 1979. 70(2): p. 375-82.
18. De Feijter,
J.A., J. Benjamins, and F.A. Veer, Ellipsometry as a tool to study the
adsorption behavior of synthetic and biopolymers at the air-water interface. Biopolymers, 1978. 17(7): p.
19. Benjamins, J.,
et al., Dynamic and static properties of
proteins adsorbed at the air/water interface. Faraday Discussions of the
Chemical Society, 1976. 59: p.
20. Benjamins, J. and J.A. De Feijter, Dynamic and static properties of proteins adsorbed at the air water interface. Faraday discussions of the Chemical Society, 1975. 59: p. 218-29.
Consultancy can be reached in the following manners:
phone: +31 592 273259
mail: Doornakkers 4
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